The United States found molecules that can break through the blood-brain barrier
According to the American physicist network reported on September 14th (Beijing time), scientists in the United States for the first time found that there is a molecule that can be produced in the body of mice,which is called adenine nucleoside, it have the ability to control large molecules into the brain, when adenine nucleoside receptors on the composition of blood brain barrier cells is activated, it will set up a channel into the blood brain barrier. The study is published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience.
Scientists say new research may help solve the century-old mystery of how to safely turn on and off the blood-brain barrier, leading to more effective treatments for alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and cancers of the central nervous system.
Blood-brain barrier is a barrier structure between blood and brain tissue. It is composed of specific cells that constitute cerebral blood vessels. It has a selective permeability effect on the substances in blood entering the brain. It allows oxygen to enter the brain while stopping the bacteria at the same time. However, the blood-brain barrier also keeps medicine out, making it a barrier for scientists to treat neurological diseases.
For one hundred years, big pharmaceutical companies have been looking for ways to make medicine that is able to break through the blood-brain barrier to save lives. Scientists have tried to get medicine into the brain by altering them to attach to receptors and other molecules and cross the blood-brain barrier. "Using adenosine receptors seems to be a more general approach, we can use this mechanism to turn on and off the blood-brain barrier," said Margaret bennu, an assistant professor of immunology at Cornell university and lead author of the study.
In the experiment, bainu's team successfully delivered large molecules of the same size as the antibodies to the brain, trying to figure out where they could get the large molecules to and whether the method required the same size of molecule. They also succeeded in getting an antibody to amyloid beta peptide to cross the blood-brain barrier in transgenic mice and observed that it adhered to the amyloid plaques that cause alzheimer's disease in mice. In mice, there are many known antagonists (medicine or proteins that can block signaling) that act as adenine nucleoside receptors.
Bainu's team also found this adenine nucleoside receptor in human bodies. They also found that Lexiscan, an FDA approved medicine based on adenosine nucleosides, could easily open the blood-brain barrier. Next step, they plan to explore ways to deliver medicine that can cure brain cancer and understand the physiological mechanisms behind adenosine nucleoside receptors that control the blood-brain barrier better.
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