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Promote the differentiation of stem cells into single cells rapidly

Researchers from case western reserve university school of medicine and Stanford university school of medicine in the United States have discovered a new way to rapidly generate large amounts of protective cells in the outer layers of the myelin sheath in mice, which could help treat multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and other demyelinating diseases. The results were published in the journal Nature Methods.

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were a new type of glial cells discovered in 1993. They were named after the expression of NG2 chondroitin sulfate polysaccharide protein. Studies have linked the cells to a variety of diseases.

OPCs have the ability to form myelin sheath, which can protect the meridians and axons and ensure the complete transmission of nerve signals. The absence of this protective layer will cause nerve damage, reduce signal carrying capacity and result in some loss of cooperation and cognitive function.

Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into OPCs, but the process of inducing stem cell differentiation may produce heterozygotes of various cell types, which is not conducive to analyzing the development stage of myelin formation or disease treatment.

Tesar and his mates proposed a way to directly differentiate mouse stem cells in just a 10 days, mainly by guiding the cells through specific stages of normal embryonic development.

The team also recently reported another new achievement in Cell stem Cell: to isolate the ectodermal stem cells from pre-implantation and post-implantation mouse embryos, and analyze the external and internal mechanisms that are affecting the pluripotency of stem cells for these cells. The research result has led to a better understanding of the many types of pluripotent stem cells and could lead to their use in research into degenerative diseases.

The researchers studied the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells and ectodermal cells isolated from pre-implantation and post-implantation mouse embryos. The researchers confirmed that isolated mouse ectodermal stem cells showed some of the same characteristics as human embryonic stem cells, while mouse embryonic stem cells showed different pluripotency. In further studies, the researchers examined the effect of the Jak/Stat signaling pathway on the acquisition of pluripotent states in cells. The new findings push scientists to have a better understanding of the internal and external mechanisms that regulate stem cells' ability to achieve different pluripotent states.
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