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China: New Achievements of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Recently, researchers from China and the United States jointly published articles using mouse transplantation model to provide a new method for controlling the content of donor dendritic cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and optimizing the balance between graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Relevant results were published in Blood magazine.

The author is Professor Edmund K. Waller, Medical College of Emory University. The first author is Dr. Lu Ying, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis Education, Shanghai Jiaotong University. Dr. Lu Ying was awarded an excellent doctoral dissertation by the Ministry of Education. In recent years, he has worked with Professor Waller on the research of graft anti-leukemia (GVL) and GVHD activity.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and one of the main causes of death of transplanted patients. Developing safe, effective and feasible methods to inhibit GVHD is an urgent problem to improve the success rate of clinical bone marrow transplantation.

In this article, the researchers used the mouse transplantation model and found that injection of donor plasmacyte-like dendritic cells could significantly improve the GVL effect in mice, prolong the survival time of recipient mice, and inhibit the GVHD effect. Further studies have shown that IFN-gamma secreted by donor T cells and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase produced by dendritic cells play a key role in suppressing the immune activity of T cells.

This study provides a new method for controlling the content of donor dendritic cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and optimizing the balance between GVL and GVHD. It also provides an important clue for the development of new strategies for isolating GVHD and GVL. It has important theoretical and practical significance.
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